• Home
  • Issues
  • 2021
  • No 4
  • Non-monetary inequalities in modern Russia: Specifics and dynamics under the crisis of 2020

Non-monetary inequalities in modern Russia: Specifics and dynamics under the crisis of 2020

TERRA ECONOMICUS, , Vol. 19 (no. 4),

Based on data from the all-Russian representative studies carried out by FCTAS RAS in 2018–2020, the system of non-monetary inequalities in modern Russian society and the changes that have occurred under the influence of the crisis caused by the first wave of the pandemic are analyzed. The key axes of non-monetary inequalities show a high degree of concentration: “safety cushion”, favorable employment conditions, good health and education, subjective well-being are typical for only a minority of the population. Along all these axes, the very nature of inequality is determined by the qualitative differences between the smallsized “top” and the rest of the mass strata. The position in the system of non-monetary inequalities to a greater extent differentiates the most high-income strata from other Russians, rather than the lowincome. The availability of digital opportunities is no longer concentrated in the upper strata, but their absence characterizes the lower strata. The differentiation of the working population occurs by the degree of infringement of basic rights and alienation of labor, i.e. by deprivation, while the additional benefits are available only for a minority of working Russians. The last crisis impacted differently on non-monetary inequalities, but the changes did not affect the general configuration of social space. Research findings have confirmed that inequality in the mass strata of the Russian population is associated not only with differences in the level of current income. Non-monetary inequalities are superimposed on monetary inequalities and exacerbate them rather than smooth them out.
Citation: Mareeva S.V. (2021). Non-monetary inequalities in modern Russia: Specifics and dynamics under the crisis of 2020. Terra Economicus 19(4): 77–91. DOI: 10.18522/2073-6606-2021-19-4-77-91
Acknowledgment: The article is prepared thanks to assistance by Russian Science Foundation Grant No. 17-78-20125

Keywords: social inequality; non-monetary inequalities; income inequality; subjective well-being; consequences of the pandemic

JEL codes: I31

  • Авраамова Е.М., Малева Т.М. (2014). О причинах воспроизводства социально-экономического неравенства: что показывает ресурсный подход? // Вопросы экономики (7): 144–160. [Avraamova E., Maleva T. (2014). On the causes of socio-economic inequality reproduction: What does resources approach show? Voprosy Ekonomiki (7): 144–160 (in Russian)].
  • Аникин В.А. (2018). Социальная стратификация по жизненным шансам: попытка операционализации для массовых опросов // Мониторинг общественного мнения: Экономические и социальные перемены (4): 39–67. [Anikin V. (2018). Social stratification based on life chances: Operationalization for mass surveys. The Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes (4): 39–67 (in Russian)].
  • Каравай А.В. (2021). Действия россиян по улучшению собственного материального положения в эпоху COVID-19 // Мониторинг общественного мнения: экономические и социальные перемены (4): 121– 137. [Karavay A. (2021). The behavior of Russians aimed at improving their financial situation in the era of covid-19. The Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes (4): 121–137 (in Russian)].
  • Мареева С.В. (2019). Неравенство жизненных шансов россиян в сфере баланса жизни и труда // Мониторинг общественного мнения: Экономические и социальные перемены (3): 324–344. [Mareeva S. (2019). Inequality of life chances in work-life balance of Russians. The Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes (3): 324–344 (in Russian)].
  • Овчарова Л.Н., Бурдяк А.Я., Пишняк А.И., Попова Д.О., Попова Р.И., Рудберг А.М. (2014). Динамика монетарных и немонетарных характеристик уровня жизни российских домохозяйств за годы постсоветского развития: аналитический доклад / Рук.: Л.Н. Овчарова. М.: Фонд «Либеральная миссия». [Ovcharova L., Burdyak A., Pishnyak A., Popova D., Popova R., Rudberg A. (2014). Dynamics of monetary and non-monetary characteristics of the standard of living of Russian households in post-Soviet period: An analytical report. Moscow: Liberal Mission Foundation Publ. (in Russian)].
  • Плаксин С.М., Жулина А.Б., Фаризова С.А. (ред.) (2021). «Черный лебедь» в белой маске. Аналитический доклад НИУ ВШЭ к годовщине пандемии COVID-19. М.: Изд. дом Высшей школы экономики. [Plaksin S., Zhulina A., Farizova S. (eds.) (2021). The “Black Swan” in a white mask. Analytical report by the HSE University on the anniversary of the COVID-19 pandemic. Moscow: HSE Publishing House (in Russian)].
  • Тихонова Н.Е. (2018). Стратификация по жизненным шансам массовых слоев современного российского общества // Социологические исследования (6): 53–65. [Tikhonova N. (2018). Stratification by life chances of mass strata in modern Russian society. Sociological Studies (6): 53–65 (in Russian)].
  • Тихонова Н.Е. (2021а). Последствия кризиса 2020 г. для различных профессиональных групп российского общества // Социологический журнал 27(2): 46–67. [Tikhonova N. (2021a). Consequences of the 2020 crisis for various professional groups of Russian society. Sociological Journal 27(2): 46–67.
  • Тихонова Н.Е. (2021b). Ресурсообеспеченность массовых слоев населения страны: состояние, динамика, последствия // Мониторинг общественного мнения: экономические и социальные перемены (4) (в печати). [Tikhonova N. (2021b). Resourcefullness of the mass strata of population: State and dynamics in 2008–2020. Monitoring of Public Opinion: Economic and Social Changes (4): 121–138 (in Russian)].
  • Шкаратан О.И. и др. (2009). Социально-экономическое неравенство и его воспроизводство в современной России. М.: ОЛМА МЕДИА ГРУПП. [Shkaratan O. et al. (2009). Socio-Economic Inequalities in Modern Russia and its Reproduction. Moscow: OLMA MEDIA GROUP Publ. (in Russian)].
  • Atkinson A. (2015). Inequality: What can be Done? London: Harvard University Press.
  • Chan T., Goldthorpe J. (2007). Class and status: The conceptual distinction and its empirical relevance. American Sociological Review 72(4): 512–532.
  • Chauvel L., Bar Haim E., Hartung A., Murphy E. (2021). Rewealthization in twenty-first century Western countries: the defining trend of the socioeconomic squeeze of the middle class. Journal of Chinese Sociology 8(4).
  • Deaton A. (2013). The great escape. Princeton University Press.
  • Erikson R., Goldthorpe J.H. (1992.) The constant flux: A study of class mobility in industrial societies. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Grusky D. (2018). The stories about inequality that we love to tell, pp. 2–14. In: The Inequality Reader. Routledge.

    Grusky D. (2001). The past, present, and future of social inequality. In: D.B. Grusky (ed.) Social Stratification: Class, Race, and Gender in Sociological Perspective. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Milanovic B. (2016). Global inequality. Harvard University Press.
  • Novokmet F., Piketty T., Zucman G. (2018). From Soviets to oligarchs: Inequality and property in Russia 1905–2016. The Journal of Economic Inequality (16): 189–223.
  • Piketty T. (2013). Capital in the 21st Century. Cambridge, MA.
  • Savage M., Li C. (2021). Introduction to thematic series “New sociological perspectives on inequality”. Journal of Chinese Sociology (8).
  • Sen A. (1999). Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Sen A. (1980). Equality of What? The Tanner Lecture on Human Values. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Stiglitz J., Sen A., Fitoussi J. (2009). Report by the commission on the measurement of economic performance and social progress.
    Stiglitz J. (2012). The price of inequality: How today’s divided society endangers our future. WW Norton & Company.
  • Van Dijk J.A.G.M. (2006). Digital divide research, achievements and shortcomings. Poetics 34(4-5): 221–235.
Publisher: Southern Federal University
Founder: Southern Federal University
ISSN: 2073-6606