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  • Demographic theory of T. Malthus and economic history of the Russian empire

Demographic theory of T. Malthus and economic history of the Russian empire

TERRA ECONOMICUS, , Vol. 13 (no. 3),

The article is devoted to the empirical analysis of the compliance of the ideas of neomaltusians concepts to a historical realities, which served as the basis of T. Malthus’ analysis. The authors examine the materials of the agricultural history of the Russian Empire and other historical examples and express the consideration that the theory of Malthus describes a special case of the North America. The theories of Malthus and his followers are not able to clarify the socio-economic processes in Russia of XIX – beginning of XX centuries, the authors show that the demographic history of Russia is a unique and rather complex. The authors point out a fiscal policy of the state as a central role in the changes of incomes of the population of the Russian Empire. It is fiscal policy, in their opinion, determined the process of development of rural territories of the Russian Empire. The role of the state in the economy of the Russian Empire the authors unambiguously describe as negative this policy responded for the reduce of incomes of poor and middle peasant families on the background disability of the cities to adopt waves of migrants from the countryside. Economic policy of S. Y. Vitte provoked the growth of the social gap in the Russian society. By the way, Russian peasant households demonstrated a low efficiency, this was caused by no demographic factors. The low efficiency of peasant household was the result of a strong taxation for Russian farmers, this factored the limitation of possibilities and motives of peasants to invest in agriculture. The authors consider the conflict between peasantry’s economy and economic policy named in the history the system of Vitte as one of the reason of the Revolution of 1905.

Keywords: theory of T. Malthus; neomalthusianism; the population of the Russian Empire; the Russian Empire; the demographic laws

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Publisher: Southern Federal University
Founder: Southern Federal University
ISSN: 2073-6606