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  • Comparative institutional analisis of land property in Russia, India and USA


TERRA ECONOMICUS, , Vol. 14 (no. 2),

The paper presents an evolutionary-institutional approach to study the models of land relations found in Russia, India and the United States. The inquiry employs the Institutional Matrices Theory (IMT), also known as X&Y Theory. This approach is based on the idea that at least two types of economies – X and Y – exist. An X-economy is understood as an economy dominated by supreme conditional property, as well as redistributive and cooperative institutions. Contrarily, the Y-economy characterizes economic systems with a dominance of private property, with the institutions of buying and selling, as well as competition, as the prevalent institutions. Moreover, IMT approach also emphasizes the importance of economic processes in their historical context, as well as the natural and climatic factors affecting the countries. This inquiry seeks to establish a balance between the legal norms and rules regulating land relations that occur in each of the selected countries and their correspondence to either X or Y type. Qualitative content analysis of land regulation practices within historical contexts is carried out. A comparison between different institutional mechanisms for each of the selected countries is made. The paper demonstrates practical significance of evolutionary-institutional approach and its explanatory power required for understanding and assessing specific traits of land relations that could characterize different countries, and may prove useful for making policy decisions.

Keywords: land relations; institutional matrices theory; land property institution; X- and Y-economies

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Publisher: Southern Federal University
Founder: Southern Federal University
ISSN: 2073-6606