• Home
  • Issues
  • 2023
  • No 3
  • Occupational structure in Great Russia and Little Russia: Outline, dynamics, and peculiarities

Occupational structure in Great Russia and Little Russia: Outline, dynamics, and peculiarities

TERRA ECONOMICUS, , Vol. 21 (no. 3),

Over the last two decades, occupational structure across urban and rural population in Russian demonstrates significant change, resulting partly from deindustrialization in employment, increase in service sector employment, and professional deskilling. In Great Russia (Russia’s largest cities), the growth in the number of managers and professionals slowed down, while the share of semi-professionals increased significantly. Smaller towns and countryside Russia, with relatively low pace of upgrading in occupational structure, are losing skilled workers, whereas the group of semi-professionals gradually grows in size. These trends smooth differentiation between various types of residence in terms of the ratio between the number of employees across local occupational groups. The specifics of employees’ position are quite pronounced at that. Across urban and countryside population, the incomes of different occupational groups appear to have somewhat leveled out over the last two decades. The reverse side of this process is the relative depreciation of labor of highly skilled persons. Additional disproportions result from the widespread practice of overworking, which is especially unfavorable in Little Russia, being aggravated by low income and population aging. Ongoing change indicates a range of internal imbalances in occupational structure in urban and rural areas, as well as systemic barriers to particular groups of employees in the Russian labor market. At times of economic crises, such a situation challenges the transition toward a new type of employee both in Great and in Little Russia.
Citation: Kolennikova N.D. (2023). Occupational structure in Great Russia and Little Russia: Outline, dynamics, and peculiarities. Terra Economicus 21(3), 88–101 (in Russian). DOI: 10.18522/2073- 6606-2023-21-3-88-101

Keywords: occupational structure; employment; territorial inequalities; social security; occupational groups

JEL codes: R23, Z13

  • Аникин В.А. (2009). Тенденции изменения социально-профессиональной структуры России в 1994–2006 гг. (по материалам RLMS). Мир России 18(3), 114–131. [Anikin, V. (2009). Trends in the socio-profes- sional structure of Russia in 1994–2006 (Based on RLMS Materials). Universe of Russia 18(3), 114–131 (in Russian)].
  • Бессуднов А.Р. (2009). Социально-профессиональный статус в современной России. Мир России 18(2), 89–115. [Bessudnov, A. (2009). Socio-professional status in modern Russia. Universe of Russia 18(2), 89–115 (in Russian)].
  • Вишневская Н.Т., Зудина А.А., Шарунина А.В. (2021). Влияние институтов рынка труда на неравен- ство: механизмы трансмиссии. В сб.: Мареева С.В., Ворон О.В., Овчарова Л.Н. (ред.) Неравенство в оплате труда: динамика, основные факторы, региональные различия, влияние институтов рынка труда. М.: НИУ ВШЭ, c. 59–87. [Vishnevskaya, N., Zudina, A., Sharunina, A. (2021). The im- pact of labor market institutions on inequality: Transmission mechanisms. In: Mareeva, S., Voron, O., Ovcharova, L. (eds.) Wage Inequality: Dynamics, Main Factors, Regional Differences, Impact of Labor Market Institutions. Moscow: HSE Publishing House, pp. 59–87 (in Russian)].
  • Гимпельсон В.Е. (2022). Зарплата и потоки на российском рынке труда в условиях коронакризиса. Вопросы экономики (2), 69–94. [Gimpelson, V. (2022). Wages and labor market flows in times of the corona crisis. Voprosy Ekonomiki (2), 69–94 (in Russian)].
  • Гимпельсон В.Е., Капелюшников Р.И. (2023). Эволюция структуры рабочих мест в России: поляризация, улучшение, застой? Вопросы экономики (1), 59–85. [Gimpelson, V., Kapelyushnikov, R. (2023). Job struc- ture evolution in Russia: Polarization, upgrading, stalemate. Voprosy Ekonomiki (1), 59–85 (in Russian)].
  • Зубаревич Н.В. (2012). Социальная дифференциация регионов и городов России. Pro et Contra 16(4– 5), 135–152. [Zubarevich, N. (2012). Social differentiation of Russian regions and cities. Pro et Contra 16(4–5), 135–152 (in Russian)].
  • Каравай А.В. (2021). Состояние человеческого капитала российских профессионалов. Terra Eco- nomicus 19(1), 124–137. [Karavay, A. (2021). State of human capital of the Russian professionals. Terra Economicus 19(1), 6–31 (in Russian)].
  • Каравай А.В. (2022). Нестандартная занятость в современной России: виды, масштабы, динамика. Социально-трудовые исследования 48(3). 81–93. [Karavay, A. (2022). Non-standard employment in modern Russia: Types, scales, dynamics. Social and Labor Research 48(3). 81–93 (in Russian)].
  • Коленникова Н.Д. (2019). Статусная консистентность занятого населения в современной России. Социологические исследования (11), 52–62. [Kolennikova, N. (2019). Status consistency of the em- ployed population in modern Russia. Sociological Studies (11), 52–62 (in Russian)].
  • Мансуров В.А. (ред.) (2020). Профессиональные династии: воспроизводство профессиональных групп. М.: ФНИСЦ РАН. [Mansurov, V. (ed.) (2020). Professional Dynasties: Reproduction of Profes- sional Groups. Moscow: Sociological Institute RAS (in Russian)].
  • Плюснин Ю.М. (2022). Социальная структура провинциального общества. М.: Common Place; Фонд социальных исследований «Хамовники». [Plyusnin, Y. (2022). Social Structure of Provincial Society. Moscow: Common Place; Social Research Fund “Hamovniki” (in Russian)].
  • Тихонова Н.Е. (ред.) (2018). Модель доходной стратификации российского общества: динамика, факторы, межстрановые сравнения. М.: СПб.: Нестор-История. [Tikhonova, N. (ed.) (2018). Mod- el of Income Stratification of the Russian Society: Dynamics, Factors, Interstrane Comparisons. Moscow, St. Petersburg: Nestor-Istoriya (in Russian)].
  • Тихонова Н.Е. (2020a). Профессиональная структура современной России: особенности и динамика. Общественные науки и современность (3), 18–34. [Tikhonova, N. (2020). The Professional struc- ture of modern Russia: features and dynamics. Obshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost’ (3), 18–34. (in Russian)].
  • Тихонова Н.Е. (2020b). Российские профессионалы: специфика рабочих мест и человеческого потен- циала. Социологические исследования (10), 71–83. [Tikhonova, N. (2020). Russian professionals: Specifics of jobs and of human potential. Sociological Studies (10), 71–83 (in Russian)].
  • Тихонова Н.Е. (ред.) (2022). Общество неравных возможностей: социальная структура современ- ной России. М.: Весь Мир. [Tihonova, N. (ed.) (2022). A Society of Unequal Opportunities: The Social Structure of Modern Russia. Moscow: Ves Mir (in Russian)].
  • Шкаратан О.И., Ястребов Г.А. (2007). Социально-профессиональная структура и ее воспроизводство в современной России: предварительные итоги представительного опроса экономически актив- ного населения России 2006 г. М.: ГУ – ВШЭ. [Shkaratan, O., Yastrebov, G. (2007). Social and Profes- sional Structure and Its Reproduction in Modern Russia: Preliminary Results of a Representative Survey of the Economically Active Population of Russia 2006. Moscow: HSE Publishing House (in Russian)].
  • Aslund, O., Hensvik, L., Skans, O. (2014). Seeking similarity: How immigrants and natives manage in the labor market. Journal of Labor Economics 32(3), 405–441.
  • Becker, G. (1962). Investment in human capital: A theoretical analysis. The Journal of Political Economy 70(5), 9–49.
  • Bills, D., Di Stasio, V., Gërxhani, K. (2017). The Demand Side of Hiring: Employers in the Labor Market. An- nual Review of Sociology 43, 291–310.
  • Friedman, S., Laurison, D. (2019). The Class Ceiling: Why It Pays to Be Privileged. Bristol: Policy Press.
  • Grusky, D., van Rompaey, S. (1992). The vertical scaling of occupations: Some cautionary comments and reflections. American Journal of Sociology 97(6), 1712–1728.
  • Hardy, W., Keister, R., Lewandowski, P. (2018). Educational upgrading, structural change and the task composition of jobs in Europe. Economics of Transition 26(6), 201–231.
  • Lynn, F., Ellerbach, G. (2017). A position with a view: Educational status and the construction of the oc- cupational hierarchy. American Sociological Review 82(1), 32–58.
  • MacMillan, L., Tyler, C., Vigoles, A. (2015). Who gets the top jobs? The role of family background and net- works in recent graduates’ access to high-status professions. Journal of Social Policy 44(3), 487–515.
  • Mincer, J. (1962). On-the-job training: Costs, returns, and some implications. The Journal of Political Economy 70(5), 50–79.
  • Reiss, A., Duncan, O., North, C., Hatt, P. (1961). Occupations and Social Status. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.
  • Schultz, T. (1961). Investment in human capital. The American Economic Review 51(1), 1–17.
  • Treiman, D. (1977). Occupational Prestige in Comparative Perspective. New York: Academic Press.
  • Weber, M. (1978). Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Publisher: Southern Federal University
Founder: Southern Federal University
ISSN: 2073-6606